Gramophone: An Interesting fact about the old Gramophone: This device was basically an improved version of Edison’s phonograph device. The Volta Gramophone Company was later set up to market the device. As far as is known, this device was introduced to the public around 1881. In 1881 AD, Emile Berliner introduced a new type of instrument. He named this device Gramophone. Its main feature was that the word line was drawn in a spiral on top of a type of zinc disc coated with wax and benzene. At that time the diameter of this record was 5 inches (13 centimetres). This record had to be placed on a plate and the handle had to be turned. Basically, these records are like word making toys. Later this device was able to make the sound processing process even less expensive. Because in the imprinting process, many copies of the same record could be made. But that was not possible in the record of the cylinder system. But judging by the quality of the sound, the sound quality of Edison’s cylinder system was much better. A gramophone from 1906 to 1894, the Berlin record company began marketing their trademark records. In 1899, the instrument gained an excellent appearance. Inside it was another instrument at the Volta Laboratory in the United States, supervised by Charles Sumner Tainter and Chichester Bell. These two scientists named it Graphophone. The company broke up in 1901. Later the company debuted under a new name. The name of this company was “Victor Talking Machine Company”.
Gramophone Record: This time the company is marketing a 10-inch diameter record. The 12-inch diameter record was marketed in 1903. The playing time of all these records was 2 minutes.
In 1909, Edison marketed the four-and-a-half-minute amber cylinder. This is the beginning of the use of plastic instruments in sound making. The record was made between 189 and 1894 with a solid rubber material. Later records were made with a mixture of slate and limestone. This is commonly called soil record. These records would have been quite heavy. The Columbia record company began making records with fibre in 1906. Gold pins were used for playing. But judging by the quality of the sound, this record did not gain popularity. The rotation of a sound-holding disk is an essential factor. This value is determined by the number of rotations per minute (rpm). During this time records of rotations ranging from 80 rpm to 130 rpm were published. Around 1894, the Berlin-based record company released a record of 6 inches in diameter. Its rotation speed was 80 rpm. Three types of records were marketed in terms of record rotation quality. This rotation was not maintained at the beginning of record making. As a result, the recorded sound or record of one instrument would not be properly transmitted to another instrument. In order to overcome this difficulty, the rotation speed was fixed around 1915. At first, this fixed speed was 78-rpm. At that time, about 41 minutes of sound was recorded on each side of the record. During this time the volume of the sound was amplified by transmitting the sound of the record into the cylinder or tube. Electric loudspeakers were first used on gramophones in the 1920 century. Three types of records were marketed in terms of record rotation quality. In 1925 an initiative was taken to give a standard of the rotation speed of all types of records. Attempts will be made to determine the rotation speed of other records by keeping the normal rotation value of the record at 8 rpm. In this formula, two rotational speeds are taken as standard. These two values are 45 and 33 rpm.
In the 1930s, some companies marketed samples of gramophone instruments with a record of 78 RPM. Of particular note were Germany’s Fonicord and the British Philmophone and Goodson. But none of these records survived in the end. 1956-1975 French scientist Pathé Cellodiscs made a record with thin vinyl plastic. These could not be used for very long. A 16-inch diameter vinyl record was released for radio broadcasts in 1940. Their rotation speed was 33 rpm. During World War II, the vinyl record stood as the standard for a long-lived record.
In 1948, the Columbia Record Company released the first long-lived record. The rotation speed at this time was 336 rpm.
In February 1949, RCA Victor released the 45 RPM record. Until 1950, words were recorded on a single channel. Since then, attempts have been made to capture two channels of sound in a single truck. In 1958, a stereo record system was introduced commercially. Sample of a modern gramophone record and record player the first transistor phonograph was made in 1955. Its models were TPA-1 and TPA-2. It could only play a 45 rpm record. It used a 1.5 volt ‘D’ battery. From then on, the era of turning the record with the handle came to an end. Basically, after that, its mechanical strategy has changed as an electronic device. Unprecedented improvements were made in the field of the record, record player rotation part, sound production quality etc. The transistor phonograph was first developed in 1955, following the invention of the computer CD. Its models were TPA-1 and TPA-2. It could only play a 45 rpm record. It used a 1.5 volt ‘D’ battery. From then on, the era of turning the record with the handle came to an end. Basically, after that, its mechanical strategy has changed as an electronic device. Unprecedented improvements were made in the field of the record, record player rotation part, sound production quality etc. Demand for gramophones has plummeted since the invention of the computer CD. Nowadays records and gramophone instruments have become a showpiece.
At present each phonograph contains a few essential parts. The parts are:
- Disk rotation device. This part contains the speed control key. The RPM of the turntable is controlled with this key.
- Above the track of the record is a handle with a pin that can be used to move the pin.
- The record contains a device capable of converting mechanical sounds into electrical signals.
- There is an amplifier to increase the intensity of the electric sound.
- There are speakers to get the ultimate value of sound.